Designed for both children and adults, TONI-3 can be administered to individuals or small groups in about 15 minutes. Its language-free format makes it ideal for testing those who have previously been difficult to assess--people with communication disorders, learning disabilities, or problems caused by mental retardation, autism, stroke, head injury, neuropsychological impairment, or disease. It also accommodates the needs of individuals who are not proficient in English. Test items present a variety of problem solving tasks, in ascending order of difficulty. The abstract figural content of these items, along with the elimination of language, reduces the cultural loading of the test. Performance is not affected by prior information or exposure. Because it is available in two equivalent forms, the TONI-3 is also ideal for pre- and posttesting.
Standardized on a nationally representative sample of more than 3,000 people, ages 6 through 89, the TONI-3 was analyzed for bias at both the item and test levels. The norm group was stratified by age, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic location, community size, language spoken in the home, and SES (based on family income and educational attainment). Item difficulty was compared across these demographic variables, and item curve characteristics were determined. Potential bias was found to be insignificant.
Backed by almost 20 years of research establishing its reliability and validity, the TONI-3 offers both sound psychometrics and quick, convenient administration.